The developer version of Debian GNU/Linux contains 17,141 packages of software, or 419,776,604 lines of code. With that figure, James Bromberger estimates that Debian would cost about $19.1 billion to produce. Bromberger also looks at the cost of individual projects like PHP, Apache and MySQL. Even at more than $19 billion, the figure is likely far short of what it would actually cost to produce.

Bromberger is following the same methodology that was used back in 2001 to estimate the cost of developing Debian 2.2 ("potato"). Debian 2.2 was estimated at $1.9 billion, which demonstrates just how much Debian and the upstream software ecosystem has grown in 11 years. The estimate uses the SLOCCount tools from David A. Wheeler, which "automatically estimate the effort, time, and money it would take to develop the software." It uses the Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) to estimate costs. This assumes that the average developer wage is about $72,533.


If you can remember the week marked the departure of one of the most iconic figures from the international corporate stage, as Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple, stepped down after some years of ill-health. The very fact that his resignation had been slowly and carefully stage-managed for more than a year indicates both the personal impact that Jobs has had on the Apple organisation and the intimate association that intrinsically binds Jobs the individual and Apple the brand. Jobs’ fame has spawned many articles, books and even scholarly texts analysing why he has such global resonance as a leader. His decision-making skills are so admired that an acronym has grown up in his honour – “WWSJD?” i.e. “What would Steve Jobs do?” So what is it about this man that makes him stand out from the crowd and what could we, as relative minnows in the business world, learn from his style and his philosophy?

It’s important to keep in mind from the start that Jobs is not universally loved. He’s a controversial man who divides opinion and who is famous for a fiercely autocratic style. “Aggressive”, “demanding”, “Silicon Valley’s leading egomaniac” are among the epithets Jobs has inspired. Not for him a collaborative, “buddy buddy” style of management. Tales of his temper tantrums are legendary. However Jobs’ belief is that as a leader, you aren’t there to be your subordinates’ best friend - a tip we could all learn as business owners and leaders. “My job is not to be easy on people. My job is to make them better,” Jobs was quoted as saying in Fortune Magazine.


GitHub is a web-based hosting service for software development projects that use the Git revision control system. GitHub offers both commercial plans and free accounts for open source projects. According to the Git User's Survey in 2009, GitHub is the most popular Git hosting site.

The site provides social networking functionality such as feeds, followers and the network graph to display how developers work on their versions of a repository. GitHub also operates a pastebin-style site called Gist, wikis for individual repositories, and web pages that can be edited through a git repository. As of January 2010, GitHub is operated under the name GitHub, Inc.

The software that runs GitHub was written using Ruby on Rails and Erlang by GitHub, Inc. (previously known as Logical Awesome) developers Chris Wanstrath, PJ Hyett, and Tom Preston-Werner.


Steve Jobs has been credited with changing the way we live, the way we view technology, the way we listen to music, the way we communicate, the way we think about art, design and invention, and much, much more. But I think the biggest change he has made is to the way both its critics and cheerleaders think about capitalism.

Take the old adage that the consumer is king. In some ways, this is as true for Apple as it is for anyone else. It stands or falls on the basis of whether people will buy its stuff. But Jobs's success was built firmly on the idea that in another sense, you should not give consumers what they want because they don't know what they want. No one thought they wanted the first desktop Mac, iPod, iPhone or iPad before they existed. Jobs repeatedly created things that people came to want more than anything else only by not trying to give them what they already wanted.


On the occasion of the start of the campaign named "Stop Intellectual Property Theft!", a press conference was held at the Republika Srpska Inspectorate on 17. October, 2011.

The campaign is led by the Republika Srpska Inspectorate in cooperation with the General Secretariat of the Republika Srpska Government, with support of the USAID project "Intellectual Property Rights".

There are several solutions to our employers, in this article please carefully consider this proposal.

Making the switch from Windows to Linux will incur some costs as employees and support staff adjust to the new system's configuration settings, utilities, and applications. Even so, the savings in future hardware and software upgrades could be huge.


Wine is a miraculous software that aims to provide Linux users the “luxury” of running Windows software. There are other ways to run this type of software, like in a virtual machine, but doing so requires a powerful computer and a genuine Windows copy.

The work that goes into Wine to make Windows developed applications run under Linux is immense. The developers have the daunting task of providing the required DLLs and a substitute to Windows kernel, everything wrapped in a compatibility layer.

All of this work has one single purpose, to run games. Maybe we try fooling ourselves that we use Wine to run various “important” applications, but in fact the main use is to run games. Almost everything that can run in Windows has a counterpart under Linux distributions and in a lot of instances, the Windows version was launched after the Linux version, so games are the last redoubt. This is probably the last main barrier that makes Linux seem like an accessible operating system and which prevent its spread as an entertainment platform.


You know you want to do some email marketing, but you’re not sure where to start. You think you might need a “Plan of Action,” but that sounds complicated and time consuming. Let’s face it: You’re too darn busy to spend hours and hours developing an email marketing plan. This guide is for you.

You’re smart to explore email marketing for your business. Current research suggests that email marketing is among the most cost effective marketing tactics available. Email marketing gets results. For example, the Ad Effectiveness Survey commissioned by Forbes Media in Feb/March 2009 reveals that email and e-newsletter marketing is considered the second most effective tool for generating conversions (that means custom¬ers)—just behind Search Engine Optimization (SEO). An email-marketing plan is easy to put together—we’ll take you through all the steps. We’ve included two fictional case studies. We’ll look at how these sample companies might complete each step in the planning process.


Twitter is a micro-blogging tool that allows short updates (or tweets) to be constructed of 140 characters or less. An update will include the name of the account holder, prefixed with the @ symbol and may also include a hyperlink if entered by the user. A tweet or update can be viewed by anyone unless the account is restricted to those who request access to view the account. No registration or login is required to view tweets, but in order to reply to them or to receive regular tweets as they are published then a free account is required. Launched in 2006, Twitter has become a popular tool for providing short pieces of information or opinion across a variety of sectors.

The number of twitter users is estimated at 12 million users in the United States alone although there is no data to suggest how many accounts are in active use, the frequency or regularity of account usage, or indeed the content of the short messages that are created. Nielson Online reported in March 2008 a total of 14 million US visitors to twitter, calculated 6 million US users in 2008, rising to 12 million in 2009 and 18 million in 2010 up to 288 million monthly active users in 2015.



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